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Avoiding Plagiarism

Learn how to avoid plagiarism and to reference your sources correctly

About Inline Styles

Inline citations use a brief summary of the reference in the text (such as listing the author and date, or the author and title, or author and page) with the full reference stated at the end of the chapter or work.

This final list is called a reference list or bibliography.

Generally the full list of references will be in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname.

Inline styles are sometimes called the “Harvard” style as they were first used at Harvard in the 1880s. They are also called “Parenthetical” styles as they enclose the partial information in brackets.

Two of the most popular Harvard-type styles are the APA 6th Edition, and the MLA 7th Edition. Our example is used to show the similarities and differences below.

The Library has books on these (and other) styles available to guide students on how to reference correctly.

APA & MLA

In the text, first example:

"As the global information landscape increasingly facilitates the sharing, re-purposing and dissemination of information, the ways in which students are accustomed to interacting with information resources are also changing" (Stagg, Kimmins, & Pavlovski, 2013).

In the text, later example:

"Referencing, like research and other academic learning skills, has often not been taught explicitly, or within a discipline context prior to tertiary education" (Stagg et al., 2013).

The APA has very specific rules regarding numbers of authors and using "et al.", how that is formatted, and so on. For an article with three authors, for example, it lists all three the first time it is mentioned but uses "et al." for subsequent mentions. This is something that is often incorrect in essays and theses.

Reference list:

Stagg, A., Kimmins, L., & Pavlovski, N. (2013). Academic style with substance: A collaborative screencasting project to support referencing skills. The Electronic Library, 31(4), 452-464. doi:10.1108/el-01-2012-0005

In the text:

"As the global information landscape increasingly facilitates the sharing, re-purposing and dissemination of information, the ways in which students are accustomed to interacting with information resources are also changing" (Stagg et al.).

Reference list:

Stagg, Adrian et al. "Academic Style with Substance: A Collaborative Screencasting Project to Support Referencing Skills." The Electronic Library, vol. 31, no. 4, 2013, pp. 452-464, doi:10.1108/el-01-2012-0005.

APA 6th

"As the global information landscape increasingly facilitates the sharing, re-purposing and dissemination of information, the ways in which students are accustomed to interacting with information resources are also changing" (Stagg, Kimmins, & Pavlovski, 2013).

MLA 8th

"As the global information landscape increasingly facilitates the sharing, re-purposing and dissemination of information, the ways in which students are accustomed to interacting with information resources are also changing" (Stagg et al.).

APA 6th

"Referencing, like research and other academic learning skills, has often not been taught explicitly, or within a discipline context prior to tertiary education" (Stagg et al., 2013).

MLA 8th

"Referencing, like research and other academic learning skills, has often not been taught explicitly, or within a discipline context prior to tertiary education" (Stagg et al.).

APA 6th

Stagg, A., Kimmins, L., & Pavlovski, N. (2013). Academic style with substance. The Electronic Library, 31(4), 452-464. doi:10.1108/el-01-2012-0005

 

MLA 8th

Stagg, Adrian et al. "Academic Style with Substance." The Electronic Library, vol. 31, no. 4, 2013, pp. 452-464, doi:10.1108/el-01-2012-0005.

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Citation Reference Books