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Nursing & Midwifery

Referencing & Citations

There are thousands of citation styles in use in academia. The School of Nursing & Midwifery uses the APA 7th Referencing style. Students receive copy of the style in the student packs. Copies are also available in Blackboard.

The School style guide will tell you how to format the references:

  • Details on which order to present the bibliographic information.
  • Grammar instructions such as how to use punctuation and capitalisation - what is emboldened, underlined, italicised… where the full stops and commas go…
  • Different rules will apply to different formats of sources (journal articles, book with one author, books with several authors, edited books, chapters in edited books, webpages, reports, films, etc. etc…)

About Inline Styles

Inline citations use a brief summary of the reference in the text (such as listing the author and date, or the author and title, or author and page) with the full reference stated at the end of the chapter or work.

This final list is called a reference list or bibliography.

Generally the full list of references will be in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname.

Inline styles are sometimes called the “Harvard” style as they were first used at Harvard in the 1880s. They are also called “Parenthetical” styles as they enclose the partial information in brackets.

Two of the most popular Harvard-type styles are the APA 7th Edition, and the MLA 8th Edition. Our example is used to show the similarities and differences below.

The Library has books on these (and other) styles available to guide students on how to reference correctly.


Here is the information we want to reference in a journal article. These fields need to applied to the APA 7th style:

  • Reference Type: Journal Article
  • Author: Ankrom, Aileen S.
  • Year: 2023
  • Title: Impact of interactive learning on nurses' ability to identify and stage pressure injuries
  • Journal: Nursing
  • Volume: 53
  • Issue: 1
  • Pages: 59-61

Subject Librarian

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Jessica Eustace-Cook
Upper Level, Hamilton Library (01) 8964916